Technical Controls Glossary

This is a list of security controls for reference use with the Minimum Information Security Technical Controls document.

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Identification Controls (ID)

UO.ID.1 CMS:Registration

System shall be registered via an ISO approved Configuration Management System (CMS).

CMS: Registration includes inventorying of system including identifiers (e.g., MAC address), IT support contact, hardware, operating system, and some software or services. CMS: Registration systems include SCCM, JAMF, or Puppet.

UO.ID.2 CMS: Management (OS)

System Operating Systems shall be managed via an ISO approved Configuration Management System (CMS).

CMS: Management (OS) includes inventorying of system hardware, operating system, and some software or services. CMS administrators (OS) will be able to push patches and updates to systems under management. CMS administrators (OS) will also be able to push security settings and monitor for compliance for systems under management.  CMS: Management (OS) systems include SCCM, JAMF, or Puppet.  CMS: Management (OS) also includes CMS: Registration services.

UO.ID.3 CMS: Management (Apps)

Applications shall be managed via an ISO approved Configuration Management System (CMS).

CMS: Management (Apps) includes inventorying of applications (or application module or components) running on a system, where practical. CMS (Apps) administrators may be able to push patches and updates to applications under management. CMS administrators (Apps) may also be able to push security settings and monitor for compliance for applications under management. CMS: Management (Apps) also includes CMS: Registration services.

UO.ID.4 Vulnerability Scanning

System shall be registered and configured for ISO ongoing vulnerability scans and identified vulnerabilities should be addressed in a timely manner not to exceed:

  • 30 days for critical risk vulnerabilities (CVSS 9.0 -10.0)
  • 90 days for high risk vulnerabilities (CVSS 7.0 -8.9)
  • 120 days for medium risk vulnerabilities (CVSS 4.0 -6.9)
  • As time allows for low risk vulnerabilities (CVSS 0.1 -3.9)

Our adversaries are constantly scanning our environment in search of vulnerable systems that can be exploited. Addressing ISO identified vulnerabilities in an expeditious manner significantly reduces the risk of the systems and data compromise.

UO.ID.5 Penetration Testing

The system shall be subjected to ISO conducted (or directed) penetration testing to confirm the strength of implemented controls or identify weaknesses.

ISO will perform or coordinate penetration testing activities to confirm the effectiveness or weakness of controls to protect the system. Penetration testing exercises should only be performed following approval by the system owner.

Protection Controls (PR)

UO.PR.1 Physical Security

System shall be physically protected and monitored to prevent theft or unauthorized access to data via the system consoles or keypads.

System should be hosted within a protected and monitored area with a secure perimeter (e.g., walls, lockable doors and windows) that protects the system from unauthorized physical access. UO datacenters should be used for hosting server devices.  Endpoint devices should be kept safe to prevent them becoming loss or stolen.

UO.PR.2 Wall Jack Access Control

Require approval for connecting unmanaged and/or non-university-owned devices to UO network wall jacks.

Unmanaged and/or non-university owned devices should be blocked from connecting to UP VLANs, unless specifically vetted and authorized by ISO.  Unmanaged or non-university-owned devices can cause network loops that could disrupt availability of critical systems or loss of connectivity to entire buildings. Additionally, these devices could be used to hijack or “sniff” sensitive traffic propagating over High-Risk segments of the network.

UO.PR.3 System Hardening

Systems shall be hardened by removing unnecessary applications, services or features prior to implementation in production or assignment to users.

Hardening a system involve removal or disabling of all unnecessary default accounts, applications (e.g., database, web server) or services (e.g., ftp service) to minimize potential vulnerabilities and the attack surface of that system. In the case of applications, unused modules are features may be disabled or uninstalled as part of the hardening exercise.

UO.PR.4 Security Baseline

System shall be configured to comply with applicable ISO approved security baseline.

ISO security baselines are developed based on industry best practices for the system in question. UO has adopted the Center for Internet Security (CIS) benchmarks to guide development of our baselines.

UO.PR.5 Security Updates

Security updates shall be applied prior to system deployment into production or assignment to users and be kept up to date thereafter.

System should be configured to automatically download and install security updates for operating systems and third-party applications whenever possible. This will reduce vulnerabilities on the system that could be exploited to cause major security incidents.

UO.PR.6 Application Blocklisting

Application Blocklist shall be used to prevent “known bad” applications from executing.

Application blocklists are often included as part of major operating systems to be able to limit applications executed on the system. Note: Allowlists are often more secure but may cause more inconvenience and are generally more expensive to implement.

UO.PR.7 Anti-malware

Anti-malware (including antivirus) software shall be in used kept up to date.

Anti-malware software runs continually to detect and remediate known malware (including viruses) based on heuristic or known malware signatures. To be effective, the software should always be running and should be set to automatically update signatures and rules from the manufacturer.

UO.PR.8 Auto-lock screens or consoles

Systems shall be configured to automatically lock and require a logon, pin, biometrics, or other means of authentication after being unattended or inactive for at most 15 minutes.
Auto-lock prevents unauthorized access by passersby or others without approval for access. Inactivity timeouts may vary between 5 and 30 minutes for Moderate Risk (Amber) or Low Risk (Green) systems. High Risk (Red) systems should be set to lock after not longer than a 15 minute period of inactivity. Red systems in high visibility or high traffic areas, should be set to have screens lock after a 5 minute period of inactivity.

UO.PR.9 Firewall (Host-based)

Host-based firewall shall be used and kept up-to-date and be configured to block inbound traffic by default

A host-based firewall (a.k.a, personal firewall) prevents other systems (including those on the same subnetwork or VLAN) from communicating with the system unless specifically allowed. This helps to prevent malicious software and activities to spread from nearby systems.

UO.PR.10 Firewall (Network)

Network access to or from the system shall be restricted to the least access necessary to perform required university function.

A“stateful inspection” firewall is required and should be configured to control traffic in both directions –inbound to and out-bound from a subnetwork. This is especially required for devices that are joined to the university active directory domain. Firewall rules (especially inbound) should be configured to deny all traffic by default and create openings based on required university functions.  Note: outbound filtering should address, at a minimum, well-known malicious traffic patterns (e.g., spoofed traffic, attacks on external networks).

UO.PR.11 Encryption: Data-at-Rest

Data-at-rest (stored) shall be encrypted to ensure confidentiality.

Sensitive files, records, tables or entire databases should be encrypted with the decryptions keys properly managed and changed periodically.  In some cases, encryption may not be needed if ISO deemed that appropriate compensating controls have been implemented, or the risk of breach of confidentiality or integrity is substantially low.
Note 1: certain combinations of Medium Risk data elements may constitute on aggregate High Risk data.
Note 2: for cloud-based services, the goal is to employ the “trust no one or TNO” principle which requires decryption keys to be accessible only by approved UO personnel, thereby preventing cloud-service vendor personnel or subcontractors from accessing UO data.

UO.PR.12 Encryption: Data-in-Transit

Encrypted protocols or secure channels shall be used to transmit data to and     from the system to ensure confidentiality of data and protection of UO data subjects.

Encrypted communication prevents eavesdropping or man-in-the-middle attacks that can be used to breach the confidentiality of data. Acceptable secure communication protocols include SSH, SCP, sFTP, IPSec, TLS, VPN. Note: in the case of connections for management or administration, data in this case may also refer to configuration files or other systems settings.

UO.PR.13 Encryption: Full Disk

Full disk encryption shall be enabled to prevent unauthorized access to data on hard drives.

Full disk encryption prevents access to data on hard drives without a valid decryption key (or password). E.g., if a laptop is loss or stolen, the data cannot be accessed without the decryption key.  Central encryption key escrow is required to be able to assist users who forgot their encryption keys.

UO.PR.14 User Access Control: Unique Access Account

Uniquely identifiable (user ID/login name) shall be used for accessing the system to ensure accountability for user activities.

System should be configured to use unique identifier assigned by the University (e.g., DuckID) for accessing the system.  Shared IDs should be avoided to ensure that activities done on a system are individually identifiable.  For cases where shared IDs must be used, additional process should be put in place to assist with unique identifiability for activities carried out on the system (e.g., ID checkout or assignment tracking process).

UO.PR.15 User Access Control: Least Privilege Access

Least privilege shall be employed to provide the minimum privileges to users and processes.

Privileges shall be restricted and controlled in accordance with the principle of least privilege to reduce opportunities for unauthorized access or misuse of the system.

UO.PR.16 User Access Control: Access Approval

Access and privileges shall be authorized by the system owner and reviewed at regular intervals.

System owners should approve access to system based on the users "need to have" to perform a university function.  Privileges should be assigned on a "least privilege" basis. System owners should regularly review access rights and privileges to ensure they are still needed; activities of interest include terminations, departmental transfers, or roles changes. Access re-certification should be performed at least annually.

UO.PR.17 User Access Control: Authentication

Authentication shall be required for all access to the system.

Acceptable UO authentication elements include username/password, PINs, digital certificates, and biometrics. ISO approved authentication sources include one of the following secure/encrypted log-on procedures: Active Directory, LDAP, UO Single Sign-on, external vendor authentication approved by ISO.

UO.PR.18 User Access Control: Limit Failed Login Attempts

System shall be configured or otherwise controlled to limit failed login attempts to 10 or less, by temporarily disabling the account.

Login attempts should be limited to prevent brute force attacks, where automated tools are used to continuously guess the password until they are successful.  Non-privileged accounts may automatically be reenabled after being disabled for 15 -30 minutes.

UO.PR.19 User Access Control: Inactive Session Timeout

Controls shall be implemented to timeout or expire sessions after a period of 10 hours or less of inactivity.

Inactive session timeout reduces exposure to session hijacking attacks, where an attacker could intercept an active session to gain unauthorized access to the system as the user.

UO.PR.20 User Access Control: Two-Factor Authentication

Two-factor Authentication shall be used, at least once, in the path required for all network access, and for all access by privileged accounts.

Two-factor authentication refers to the combination of any two of the following factors: 1) something you know(e.g., a password or PIN), 2)something you have(e.g., a phone, a token, proximity access card, a digital certificate), 3) something you are(e.g., finger print, hand scan, iris scan, etc.).

UO.PR.21 User Access Control: Remote Privileged Access Session Security

Encrypted communication protocols shall be used for remote privileged access to the system.

Encryption protocols are required for privileged access to the system from outside of the UO wired network (including from the University wireless networks.) Acceptable protocols include SSH, SCP, sFTP, or virtual private network tunneling protocols (TLS or IPSEC VPN).  Depending on specific requirements, split tunnelingmay be prohibited to prevent access to the local network and VPN destination network simultaneously.

UO.PR.22 Web Reputation Filtering

Web Reputation Filtering shall be used to protect user from known malicious websites as identified by ISO.

Web reputation filtering service tracks known malicious websites to protect users.  Web reputation filtering services may be included as part of web browsers or as part of other endpoint protection service. Automatic updating of the blocklist is highly recommended.

Detection Controls (DE)

UO.DE.1 Logging and Retention

System shall be configured to log and retain privileged and non-privileged user activities, and system security events.

Logs should be configured to capture events showing "who did what and when". Systems Logs should be sent to the ISO-approved Logging and Monitoring service to ensure appropriate retention and analysis for security events.

UO.DE.2 Log Monitoring

System generated logs of user activity and system security events shall be monitored for potential security issues by the system administrator and ISO.

Logs should be sent to the ISO-approved Logging and Monitoring service to be analyzed for indicators of security issues and to provide alerting and notification.

UO.DE.3 File Integrity Monitoring

File integrity monitoring shall be used to validate the integrity of important operating system and application software files.

Unauthorized changes or replacement of critical operating system or application files often signals infiltration by attackers. File integrity monitoring provides a means to detect such changes by using cryptographic methods (e.g. hashing functions) for detection.

Recovery Controls (RE)

UO.RE.1 Incident Recovery: Backup & Recovery

System and data shall be backed up and retained according to University record retention policies, and system owner recovery point and recovery time objectives (RPO, RTO).

System and data backups should be stored as far away from the original system as possible to avoid destruction of both originals and backups. This is also a key control to recover from dangerous attacks such as ransomware.  For desktop computers, users should focus on ensuring that important data is backed up, as opposed to full backup of those systems.

UO.RE.2 Incident Recovery: Restoration Testing

Backup system shall be tested periodically to verify the integrity of the backup process and recoverability of data and system.

Recovery testing increase assurance that the process is working correctly and increases confidence that backups are being captured appropriately.  This activity can either be done on a scheduled basis or recoveries performed during normal operations can be documented and leveraged as evidence of process and data integrity.

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